Biotechnology is essentially the use of biological system, i.e. microbes, plants and animals and process to produce substances or effects beneficial to people. Biotechnology can be classified into two types-
  1. Gene biotechnology involving gene transfers and
  2. Non-gene biotechnology involving gene cells, tissue or the whole organism
Various techniques used in biotechnology are genetic  engineering or recombinant DNA technology , hybridoma technology, cell and tissue culture, embryo transfer technology, protein engineering fermentation, biconversion  and immobilization of cells and cellular products. It is used in the manufacture of antibiotics, vitamins, vaccines, plastics, disposal of toxic waste using bacteria pollution control and production of new fuels,etc.
Genetic Engineering:
The use of Genetic machinery of life for production of any special substance is called Genetic engineerin and Genetic technology. Some of the techniques of genetic manipulation are as follows:
a) Isolation of genes : In the isolation of genes, appropriate sequences are directly obtained from the genome of normal cell or from other cells (like those of phases) where they might have been inserted. This can be made possible by cleavage and denaturation. Appropriate sequence can be isolated by Different techniques. One of most common and what method is “southern blots technique” for isolation of genes.
B) synthesis of genes: There are two approaches now available for synthesis of genes. If detailed structure of gene is available, this gene can be synthesized by purely chemical methods as done by doctor Hargobind khurana and reported by him for the first time in 1970. DNA can be synthesized rNA template so that if pure RNA origin is available, complementary DNA which will be the presumed gene in question, can be synthesized. thus the synthesis of cANA from mRNA agent is the 2nd approach for gene synthesis, cDNA has also been used for isolating the gene from DNA extracted from living cells using Southern blot technique.
C) total synthesis of a Human interferon gene: Interferon is a protein, which has a property of inhibiting viral infection and cell proliferation and thus can be used for treatment of viral infection and malignancies that is cancer. At least three kinds of interferon gene are known in Human Genome.
The plasmids with this newly synthesized gene have been transferred into bacteria which are being utilised now for synthesis of interferon in industry. This will greatly reduce the cost of production of this drug interferon.
Tissue culture:
It is a technique of growing tissues of cells of multicellular organisms in an artificial environment. Tissue culture is a process whereby small pieces of living plant tissues are isolated from a plant and clone on a semi defined or define nutrients medium in controlled environmental conditions. explants can either be large seedings small single cell or even the prototypes, it has passed potential in-
1) producing crops which can with stand high salinity, aridity and other Hospital conditions.
2) conservation of endangered plant species and preservation by cryopreservation( freeze drying method). In India national bureau o plant genetic resources( nbpgr) of ICAR is the prime organisation, preserving endangered plant species.
3) genetic engineering in which foreign genetic materials are introduced to make tailor made individuals.
4) producing biological active compounds for Pharmaceutical industry.
5) obtaining disease free plant materials.
6) clonal propagation on mass scale, specially of ornamental and horticultural plants, which have a great export potential.
Use of biotechnology in health and medicine:-
Biotechnology has found a wide range of applications in medicine. While dealing with disease, application of biotechnology includes prevention, diagnosis and cure of disease. Through Human Genetics, it has found using genetic counselling, antenatal diagnosis and gene therapy. In forensic medicine it has already been used for identification of individuals who could be criminal.
Vaccines: Vaccines against several pathogens have either been produced or are expected to be produced in near future.
Diagnostic tests:
DNA probes and monoclonal antibodies( including Elisa test for diagnosis of AIDS) for diagnosis of various disease like filariasis, hepatitis-B, kalaazar, typhoid, STD and antenatal diagnosis have been developed.
Drugs: Drugs for treatment of disease can be manufactured using the biotechnology, example insulin for treatment of diabetes and interferon for treatment against some tumor viruses are now being manufactured in bacterial cell in large quantities.
Gene therapy:
Human hereditary this order are corrected by replacement of the defective genes with a normal gene.
Fertility control:
Need for developing safe, effective, long lasting and reversible contraceptives.
DNA fingerprinting:-
The technique of DNA fingerprinting was first developed by Alec jeffreys in 1985- 86 in UK. DNA fingerprinting is a process which looks for variation in our DNA, the basic genetic material found in Every cell of our body. The DNA not only carries a blueprint of our life, but also where is significantly from one person to another. DNA fingerprinting does it to look inside DNA and reasons of DNA that show a great the operations from one person to another. These regions account for a small proportion of our genetic material, but the variation are such that we can locate in these regions, highlight and identify them using DNA probes and obtain a pattern, a series of bands 4 strips on X-Ray film, individual, except in case of identical twins who have the same DNA.
The use of chemical pesticides is being disgraced in recent years due to development of resistance by pests, environmental pollution and rising cost. Therefore, the development and potential use of biopesticides and an integrated approach to pest control for crop protection have become necessary. Biopesticides are natural predators or enemies of pests which include parasites, predators, fungi, bacteria and viruses.
1) non chemical method
2) rely on natural Enemies of pest
3) kill all people on the targeted pest
4) no harm to non targeted organisms
1. Development of resistance by pest insects to insecticides
2. Elimination of a host of friendly insect honey bees, pollinators, nitrogen fixing bacteria etc
3. Accumulation of pesticides residue in the food and fodder that may cause health hazards.
4. In the absence of natural enemies certain pests grew with renewed vigour e.g snakes get killed by the pesticides but rodents increase in the absence of the snakes.

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