Environmental Pollution

Environment is a very broad term it includes all that is above below and around us. Now a days one of the greatest problem facing the modern civilization is that of pollution which literally means,fouling the natural habitat and environment. Natural calamities like earthquakes, cyclones, famines, epidemics etc. Cause great suffering to human beings. But men’s most destructive enemy is man himself he pollutes the environment in which he lives.
Causes of environment problem:
Environment problem is mainly of two types-
1) those rising as negative effects of very process of development and modernization.
2)those rising from conditions of poverty and underdevelopment. The first time relates to the impact of efforts to achieve Rapid economic growth and development. The second type relate to the impact on the health and integrity of our natural resources such as Land, soil, water, forest etc as a result of poverty.
EIA: Environment impact assessment
It is an activity to evaluate the possible impact of and anthropogenic activity on environment.

* air pollution

According to WH0 is the presence
Of materials in the air that are harmful to man and his environment. Air pollution is mainly of two types:
1. Gaseous pollutants like hydrocarbons, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, oxides of Sulphur and nitrogen, hydrogen sulphide, ozone etc.
2. Particle pollutants like smoke, dUst, mist, FUME, spray etc.
* sources:
Industrial inputs like carbon dioxide, sulphur dioxide, carbon monoxide, hydrogen sulphide, nitrous oxide ozone, chlorine, arsenic etc domestic pollutants from fossil fuels burnt by human; exhaust automobile exhaust or vehicle emissions, industrial accidents suspended particulate matter like fine dust particles and suit emitted by industrial units.
# effects:
1. Carbon monoxide having affinity with hemoglobin when enters blood replaces oxygen from oxy haemoglobin and thus increases concentration of carbon dioxide in blood causing headaches, eye irritation breathing problem and death.
2. Ozone which also causes smog, is toxic for plant growth and harms human and animal health.
3. Carbon dioxide causes global warming
4. SPM like asbestos dust causes lung disease lead causes nervous disorder and brain damage.
5. Smog causes visibility, eye irritation and plant damage.
# remedies:
1. Problems should be identified at regional and local levels and iterated accordingly.
2. Strict enforcement of pollution control laws.
3. Urban planners must locate residential, commercial and industrial zones suitably.
4. Introduction of clean Technologies.
5. Use of CNG in cities.

## water pollution

Water an essential component for our survival and the most important ecological factor present everywhere has no also been extensively polluted over the years.
* source:
Domestic sewage, industrial waste and chemical inputs of agriculture and elevated temperatures.
Fresh water pollution is mainly due to:
1. Excess of nutrients from sewage and soil erosion causing algae blooms.
2. Pathogens from sewage which spread disease.
3. Heavy metal and organic compounds that bio acculate in aquatic organisms.
# effects:
Water pollution has the following effects:
1. Increased water treatment costs.
2. Spread of epidemics like cholera, jaundice, dysentery, typhoid, gastroenteritis etc.
3. Metals like mercury, copper, zinc lead uTC and their oxides from Industrial waste cause nervous disorder, release of dyes etc into water sources and they are used by humans and animals affect biological processes.
## remedies:
1. Input control of pollutants should be prevented from being generated in the first place.
2. Output Control, it attempts to control the pollutant and it effects after it has been produced.
3. Developing of proper sewage system can reduce incoming point source of pollution. Effluent treatment plants to be used.
4. Extensive afforestation can help in minimising nonpoint sources of pollution.
5. Strict info enforcement of pollution control laws.
6. Charge of drinking water after primary and secondary treatment of water using chlorinator unit.

* noise pollution:

Noise is an unpleasant sound or sound without value. This environment act 1986 recognise noise pollution as an offence. The intensity level of sound is measured in decibel scale. It is considered that the noise level below 80 decibel does not produce any ill effects. However higher level of an causes impairment of hearing. Exposure to noise levels exceeding 75 decibel for more than 8 hours daily can impair hearing. Its other effects are stress, hypertension, fatigue, sleep disturbance, speech interference irritability.

Researchers are underway for devising new methods to control environmental pollution and protect this planet. in India the department of environment and prevention and control of pollution board, working at National as well as state level, have connected several laws to protect the environment and stop its further degradation. But mere laws to contain this global menace will not suffice. Unless the people realise the hazardous of pollution and join in the government efforts in protecting their environment, all legislation would be futile and meaningless. The time is to organise a mass moment to protect the environment as we sell all perish.

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